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NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 19.After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp.During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties.The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries.Typical German place name endings of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -itzsch and -in.The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- ("swamp").The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany.

Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics.In 1443, Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln.The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille").Modern Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras, museums, and entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events.Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the river Elbe and its tributary (Saxon/Thuringian) Saale, which once constituted the eastern border of the Frankish Realm.

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